[Ethopia]

Ads Top

Issues in Computer-Mediated Communication



              Issues in Computer-Mediated Communication
 BY

Ifedayo Akinwalere                                                                NOVEMBER  24, 2017


Introduction
Technology plays a major role in all human cultures and societies, from the first group of humans who domesticated fire to be used as a weapon and a tool to the development of the light bulb that sparked the age of electrification to the development of the computer and the Internet that resulted in our present information age. Technology is a system of knowledge intended to have a practical bearing. Beyond this, it can also include the human processes and relationships required to bring a scientific idea to life.  Information technology is becoming the cornerstone of every society; it is bringing great changes in the structure and ways of life of people. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and development in modern technology especially in the field of electronic communication and computer science and technology influence the society. ICT has had its effects in the economic, social, cultural, political, and even individual, spheres of life. Proper use of ICT may even transform a country from developing to a developed society in just a few years. Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) have increasingly become indispensable tools for development over the past few decades. Positive effects of ICTs have continually been noted in homes, business, production, agriculture, aviation, commerce, education, politics, governance, culture and other aspects of human endeavours. In higher education, ICTs have great influence in teaching, learning, research and other scholarly and professional activities through improved communication and access to information. To this end, Rogers (1986 cited in Bob and Sooknanan, 2014) claimed that the microcomputer is one of the most important innovations of recent decades in terms of its impact in homes, schools and businesses.
The Internet, in particular, was the catalyst that catapulted the computer into a global phenomenon. Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) is defined as any human communication that occurs through the use of two or more electronic devices. While the term has traditionally referred to those communications that occur via computer-mediated formats (e.g., instant messaging, email, chat rooms, online forums, social network services), it has also been applied to other forms of text-based interaction such as text messaging. Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) is a generic term used for a variety of systems that enable people to communicate with other people by means of computers and networks. Well-known examples of such systems include computer conferencing, electronic mail, discussion lists, and bulletin boards. However, there are yet other possible applications of CMC, both in the work, education and training environments. In the work environment, a common and growing phenomenon is collaborative work by individuals or groups who are separated from each other by either time or distance. This has come to be called Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) (Grief, 1988 cited in Romiszowski and Mason, 2001).
Romiszowski et al. (2001) in addition, stated that the working definition of computer-mediated communication is the kind of communication between different parties separated in space and or time, mediated by interconnected computers. The computer network acts as a communication medium just as if it were a printed book containing text and graphics or a video broadcasting system. For instance, if Mr. A needs to get a message to Mr. B In the past, Mr. A have to physically tracks Mr. B down or have someone else do it. Today, there are more options, Mr. A can send a text, an email, create post on his wall, or reach out to Mr. B in any number of ways.  He can even send Mr. B a video message expressing his views. All of these are examples of computer-mediated communications (CMC), which is a more concise term that applies to all the ways that we have to reach out and communicate with someone from a distance via a computer.
Computer Mediated-Communication: (less often, mediated discourse) refers to communication carried out by the use of information communication technology. CMC relies heavily on electronic gadgets, purveyor of information must act in accordance with the technical and operational structure of the gadgets in use. Therefore, any deviation from the set standard will break communication flow.
Communication: Communication is derived from the Latin words communis, and communicare which translate as common and to share respectively. This means that communication aims at the sharing of information, ideas and messages, making them universal. It would appear that this sense of sharing is easy to achieve in human interaction. This is not always the case in the complex business world (Ogbulogo, 2004). Communication can also mean two-way process of reaching mutual understanding, in which participants not only exchange (encode-decode) information, news, ideas and feelings but also create and share meaning. In general, communication is a means of connecting people or places. In business, it is a key function of management. An organization cannot operate without communication between levels, departments and employees. Ogbulogo (2004) defined Communication as a process of transmitting messages from a source to receivers using a signaling system. Communication is simply the act of transferring information from one place to another. Communication can be spoken or verbal communication: face-to-face, telephone, radio or television and other media. Non-verbal communication: body language, gestures, how we dress or act - even our scent.



MERITS OF COMPUTER-MEDIATED COMMUNICATION
It is important to stress that communication technology has both positive and negative impacts on social interaction. There are numerous impacts of communication technology today more than ever. Communication technology impacted in the manner of human communication and every sector of today’s economy. There is no doubt that the advent of communication technology is the reality of fulfillment of 1960s prediction of Herbert Marshall McLuhan. McLuhan argued in the 60s that the application of the new communication media in people’s lives would not only bring changes in the way people communicate with each other, but also would bring radical changes in all human affairs.
Communication technology is reshaping and restructuring patterns of social interdependence and every aspect of our personal life. It is forcing us to reconsider and re-evaluate practically every thought, every action and every institution formerly taken for granted. Everything is changing - you, your family, your neighborhood, your education, your job, your government, your relation to ‘the others and they are changing dramatically (McLuhan, 1967). His argument was not so much a prediction or a prophecy for himself because when he was writing in the early 60s, he was absolutely convinced that the world was already transformed, with the aid of radio, telephone, and television into a ‘global village’. But most of what he said makes more sense today than in the 60s, as the leading powers of Western world have pinned their hopes for a better future on electronic networks, wired and wireless. The Internet, the network of networks, can bring all the media in our personal computer and have the potential to connect all the homes on the planet with endless sources of information. The advent of Computer-Mediated Communication has a lot of benefits for man and his environment. Some of the benefits are highlighted and explained below:
Faster and Easier Communication through the Internet
Computer Mediated Communication has impacted on communication greatly, especially as it reduces or compresses time and distances between nations, regions, zones and continents, connect cultures and peoples and engenders a semblance of mass global audience, while at the same time functioning as the awareness for expression of some local language and ways of preserving local cultures and heritage. The internet is the network that is made up of wires, cables, satellites and network of computers across the world. Being connected to this network is often described as being Online. The Internet connects computers and resources worldwide.  Internet which leads to CMC has changed the world into a global village.
Highly Interactive Communication
One of the merits of computer mediated communication is that it is capable of making interaction between the participants possible at faster rate. It provides for complex processes of interaction between or among participants. It combines the permanent nature of written communication with the speed, and often the dynamism of spoken communications, for example via telephone. Discussing the advantages  of  ‘InfoTech  revolution’,  Nkwocha  (2004 cited in Ohiagu, 2010) stated that communication technology provides us with the opportunity of obtaining accurate, timely, relevant, appropriate and adequate information for  decision making  in personal  and corporate spheres.  This comes  with  great  speed, efficiency  and  reliability  yet  it  is  cheap  and  time-saving.
 In addition, as computer-mediated communication provides avenue and possibility for interaction, the opportunities for immediate feedback are almost limitless, and are not constrained as they are in some of the “electronic page turning” forms of computer-aided instruction, wherein the interaction is limited to a selection among a small number of choices. It is only the creativity, imagination, and personal involvement of participants, that constrains the potential of online discussions. The potential for interaction is more flexible and potentially richer than in other forms of communication. With the use of ICT, the possibilities for interaction and feedback are almost vast, being a function of the creativity and personal involvement of the participants in the on-line discussion. The feedback messages do not have to be prepared and stored. The participants are able to some extent to express within their messages not only the bare content but the system also allows participants personal viewpoints and, to a limited extent, the emotional overtones that may be present. Thus, the potential for interaction through computer system is both more flexible and potentially richer than in other forms of communication.
Similarly, Rogers (1986) cited in Bryant and Thompson (2002) observed that human communication had changed since the advent of new technologies.
1.      New communication systems promote interactivity.
2.      The new media are also de-massified to the degree that a special message can be exchanged with each individual in a large audience.
3.      The new communication technologies are also asynchronous, meaning they have the capability for sending or receiving a message at a time convenient for an individual.
People Think and Act Together
Computer- Mediated Communication enables a group to think together, to see together and to act together. The importance of communication has been recognized from time immemorial. Communication is basic to all human processes and without it human beings cannot perform organized group processes that help coordinate their activities in society and eventual interdependence of lives. Communication which is the exchange of ideas, information knowledge and the transmission of meaning is the very essence of a social, economic, or political system. European experts in the Sociology of knowledge and mass society such as Marx, Tonnies, Simmel, Mannheim, Tarde, and Le Bon (n.d cited in Olayiwola, 2013) asserted that society cannot exist without communication and that communication cannot exist without society. Olayiwola (2013) stated further that human beings, associations, organizations, societies and the nation-state are all built upon and held together by communications by perceptions, by decisions, by the expectations which people have for one another, by transactions and by their willingness to validate a considerable portion of the expectations by appropriate reciprocal behaviours. It is communication, that is, the ability to transmit messages and to react to them that makes organizations; hence any thorough-analysis of political organizations or social systems must at least include a consideration of the role of communication.
Daramola (2011) stated that:
The idea of the concept society is based on the fact that human beings live in groups and from there emerge social relationship and interaction. It is arguably right that men live together and share common opinions, values, beliefs, and customs; they also continually interact, respond to one another, and shape their behaviour in relation to a persisting process of action and reaction.

A social relationship therefore exists when individuals or groups possess reciprocal expectations concerning the behaviour so that they tend to act in relatively pattern ways… Society is therefore defined from this perspective as the “web of social relationship’’, Daramola (2011) added.
Nigeria is a heterogeneous society with different cultural groups, yet as a nation, the people have some  shared  beliefs,  common values,  traditions,  world  views,  lifestyles,  code  of dressing,  eating, greeting etc. It is on  the basis  of these common cultural values  that despite  the diverse,  individual, cultural or ethnic groups that exist,  the term ‘Nigerian culture’  is used here in the same vein as people talk of western culture, though there are many nations and cultures that exist in the western world.
Computer-Mediated Communication and Multimedia Approach System
This simply means the packaging of information in different forms such as text, audio, video, pictures, signs, symbols, diagrams and colour. Ganiyu and Akinreti (2011) stated that one of the outstanding merits of communication technologies is its capacity to disseminate multimedia messages. That is, a message can be sent and received in many ways such as in written form, audio, video, pictures among others. Multi-media computers help us perform communication functions such as word processing, information storage and retrieval, internet services etc. Satellite television network links the entire world through the satellite system such that whatever is happening  in  one  part  can  be  seen  or  watched  in  other  parts.  The Internet enables us to obtain information about important personalities, issues, organisations speedily and cheaply.
Computer-Mediated Communication and Multi-Way Communication
Another aspect of this communication process is that it is essentially multi-way communication. At the very least, the communication is two-way, as in the case of two people exchanging messages in an electronic-mail environment. More often, however, the communication is multi-way between all the participants of a group who may receive and respond to messages from all the other participants.

Isolation Tackled
Overcoming a sense of isolation is another positive impact of the internet on social interaction. Someone might feel like an outcast in his/her community or among members of his immediate family but might find someone on the internet with similar hobbies, pursuits and interests. For example, someone who enjoys photography as a serious leisure pursuit might find someone or same people to share her passion with all over the world using communication technologies such as the internet. Isolation from family, friends, groups and society has led the death some people in the past and some others have reportedly committed suicide as a result of isolation.
Provision of Platform for Creativity and Learning New Ideas
Through Communication technology such as social media, online participants can learn new ideas and become creative in certain endeavours. Katz and Aakhus (2002) stated that the internet encourages creativity, emotional and informational support in social interaction. This is because it increases opportunities for its users to interact with both known and unknown people based on similar interests, networks of relationship or mere chance.
CMC Enables Reconnection of lost Contact
A positive impact of the communication technology on social interaction is that it helps a lot in bringing distant friends and families together through constant discussions on net. This happens in a society where people have become quite mobile and family and friends are often geographically separated. It is therefore convenient to keep in touch with each other and one another through the internet. In addition, friendly relationships may develop in spite of reduced cues that CMC participants became more casual and humorous over time, and that this medium invites more equitable participation. Some investigators found that students who participated in CMC maintained their attitude of positive potential for this medium after direct experience with it. They enjoyed chatting, and making friends and professional contacts, and felt less isolated.
Mediated communication has been, however, described as more preferable in some situations, particularly where time and geographical distance are an issue. For example, in maintaining long-distance friendship, face-to-face communication was only the fourth most common way of maintaining ties, after mediated communication tools of telephone, email and instant messaging.
Possibility of Distance Education
Communication technology increases the opportunity of making use of computer mediated communication which in turn leads to the reality of operating distance education. Some scholars argued that this technology allows for greater access at reduced costs by reaching rural areas, providing communication access for those who cannot attend class because of hectic life schedules, physical limitations or institutional barriers. The four main advantages of communication technology, which is a type of asynchronous communication media, over face-to-face communication or synchronous communication media include more active and equal team member participation, flexibility over time and distance combined with ease of changing team size quickly, the ability of team members to reflect or collect data before responding, and instant and evolving archived records of the discussion known as threading (Berry, 2004 cited in Bob et al., 2014).
In education, a particular growth area is the use of Computer- Mediated Communication systems which resulted from communication technology not only for distance education when the participants are separated physically but also for more convenient communication on the same campus. Applications include institutions that utilize CMC as a principal mode of instruction and communication between tutors and students for whole courses, programs that run a few course units by means of ICT, and the use of ICT as a support medium for enrichment in otherwise conventional courses.  The emerging, operation and success of National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN) are possible with the ICT based technology. Today NOUN has at least a branch in every local government areas of Nigeria without a major campus anywhere and with the use of ICT; a lot of successes have been recorded in its academic operations. There is no doubt that Communication technology has led to establishment of learning communities. Hargreaves (2002 cited in Odumuh, 2012) claimed that:
Strong professional learning community is a social process for turning information into knowledge. He posited that it brings together the knowledge, skills and dispositions of teachers in a school, or across schools, to promote shared learning and improvement.

In addition, the use of networked technologies is transforming the traditional environment that teachers have experienced (e.g. web-based teaching, video-conferencing, cross-cultural sharing, and different types of interactive and multi-media materials). Teachers are now beginning to use such opportunities in the networked professional learning communities to share resources and expertise, discuss pedagogical approaches, reflect on practice and provide support for their colleagues as part of the community experience.
The purpose of most of the uses of communication technology is to minimize or reduce challenges caused as a result of large geographic distances between colleagues. However, some very important effects from local uses can also be realized. In the process of using communication technology for learning purpose, electronic mail can extend classroom discussions, increase the ease of evaluating student assignments, increase the connectedness of students and faculty, and increase both the social as well as an intellectual impact from this means of communication.
ICT has also been used to promote an excellent medium for self-directed learning as a defining characteristic of adult learning. Self-direction manifests itself when students voluntarily elect to take a CMC-based course, determine how, when, and where they will study, and negotiate the learning activities and content focus they will pursue during the course. Eastmond (1993 cited in Romiszowski el al., 2001), found that distance students taking CMC courses exhibited varying patterns of self-direction. They were confident about their abilities to manage their schedule and the study process to produce necessary learning results, but they wanted the assignments clearly set forth for them by the instructor. Many educators are eager and enthusiastic about the use of CMC as a teaching medium can adapt strategies from small-group and, interactive face-to-face techniques to the on-line world. Examples include seminars, learning partnerships, group projects, team presentations, simulations and role plays, peer counseling, and self-help groups. CMC technology saves time and money in IT organizations by facilitating the use of all communication formats.
CMC has grown tremendously around the globe particularly in the developed nations of the world. This growth however appears to be relatively slower in the developing nations including African nations. The Partnership for Higher Education in Africa in a recent workshop survey indicated that while some governments have produced national policies on ICT, many others are yet to do so (Murgor, 2015).
Today, Universities are expected to contribute to society by widening access to higher education, continuing professional development and applied research, contributing to local economic impact, and improving social inclusion (Beebe, 2012). Universities as institutions for knowledge generation and its transfer to society have been central to development, contributing ideas, skills, technology and expertise in many spheres of human endeavour (Jega, 2007).
It has been emphasized that availability of skilled and employable talent is the responsibility of universities and higher educational institutions. In order to achieve this, concentrated efforts to elevate talent and quality are needed from all the concerned quarters namely the government, the academia and the industry which included the CMC.
At the International level, UNESCO (2007-08) has prepared a document for Asia– Pacific countries, for the implementation of ICT programs (Roy and Raitt, 2003) through the higher educational and research institutions. In this document, various ICT strategies supporting the core areas through learning, teaching (Resta, 2002), training programs and research, driving the higher education towards excellence, have been suggested there for African universities.
Many European university students use CMC daily and seamlessly for both studies and recreation, and social interactions like many, if not most, of the academic and administrative staff in the university (Prensky, 2001). Students view use of ICT as a beneficial ingredient in modern university education but mainly as a source of information and research materials on-demand rather than as a direct and structured learning option. This may stem from their quite limited exposure to such e-learning opportunities and wider experience of high quality e-learning activities could alter this view (Murgor, 2015). ICT via the web has opened opportunities for access to education in Africa for those unable to attend school or college for economic or cultural reasons.
Many researchers claim that the successful incorporation/implementation of ICT in schools still faces myriad obstacles along the way (BECTA, 2004; Hew & Brush, 2007). Lim (2002) suggested that researchers need to take a more contextual approach when studying ICT integration in education, taking into consideration the environment in which ICT is being used (Lim, 2002). Tondeur, Devos, Houtte, Braak, and Valcke (2009) added that useable solutions can emerge only after taking into consideration the structural and cultural aspects of the school where ICT is being integrated.
Globalization of Business Communication
Business technology has revolutionized the way companies conduct business. Work projects and business profits all connect to globalization enabled by technology. Everyone can connect with those in foreign countries with the click of a mouse. Decades ago, it would have taken months or years to find an inroad with a foreign partner or associate. Today, you can build a business with someone in another country in a matter of weeks or even days. There is no question that technology has radically changed the way companies do business, extend their influence in the global marketplace and improve the quality and efficiency of their day-to-day operations. In the area of business communications, has already become firmly established.
Computer-mediated communication has revolutionized the way people stay in touch and the way that companies conduct business. Today, most of the major companies in around the world maintain their own data and personal communication networks so that all departments can communicate effectively and efficiently by electronic means. One aspect of increasing importance in these systems is the use of electronic mail, computer conferencing, and increasingly, computer-supported collaborative work between individuals or groups who may be scattered in different regions of a country or even different continents. The "globalization" of business communication has become necessary for staying competitive.
With the help of communication technology, small businesses can implement business technology and level the playing field with larger organizations. Small businesses use computers, servers, websites and personal digital products to develop competitive advantages in the economic marketplace. Small business owners should consider implementing technology in their planning process. This allows owners to create operations using the best technology available.
Small business owners can use technology to reduce business costs. Business technology helps automate back office functions, such as record keeping, accounting and payroll. Business owners can also use technology to create secure environments for maintaining sensitive business or consumer information. Many types of business technology or software programs are user-friendly. This allows business owners with a minor background in information technology to use computer hardware and software. Business technology can help small businesses improve their communication processes. Emails, texting, websites and personal digital products applications, known as “apps," can help companies improve communication with consumers.
Using several types of information technology communication methods allow companies to saturate the economic market with their message. Companies may also receive more consumer feedback through these electronic communication methods. These methods also allow companies to reach consumers through mobile devices in a real-time format.
Increase in Productivity and Efficiency
Both big and small businesses can increase their employees' productivity through the use of technology. Computer programs and business software usually allow employees to process more information than manual methods. Business owners can also implement business technology to reduce the amount of human labour in business functions. This allows small businesses to avoid paying labour costs along with employee benefits. Business owners may also choose to expand operations using technology rather than employees if the technology will provide better production output. Communication Technology allows small businesses to reach new economic markets. Rather than just selling consumer goods or services in the local market, small businesses can reach regional, national and international markets. Retail websites are the most common way small businesses sell products in several different economic markets. Websites represent a low-cost option that consumers can access anytime when needing to purchase goods or services. Small business owners can also use Internet advertising to reach new markets and customers through carefully placed web banners or ads. Business technology allows companies to outsource business function to other businesses in the national and international business environment. Outsourcing can help company’s lower costs and focus on completing the business function they do best. Technical support and customer service are two common function companies outsource.
Small business owners may consider outsourcing function if they do not have the proper facilities or available manpower. Technology allows businesses to outsource function to the cheapest areas possible, including foreign countries.
One of the biggest users of computers and computer networks is the business environment. Most companies have local and wide area networks that link individual computers from the same location and multiple locations to each other so that information and messages can be shared. These computer networks are then linked via the Internet to the World Wide Web making it easier to communicate with suppliers, clients and business partners. In the modern workplace there is a computer at every desk with each networked to form part the company’s local or wide area network. From each terminal, electronic mail otherwise known as e-mail, messages can be sent to single as well as multiple recipients thus making the distribution of information easier and quicker than ever before. Managers believe that access to and use of this information would result in increased worker productivity and efficiency and make it easier for them to communicate with staff. Due to the effects of globalization, local businesses must now compete globally for market dominance and this puts increase demands on businesses to ensure that productivity and efficiency are at a high level and continually improving.
Technology related to communications can help employees perform their jobs to the best of their ability. For employees with the ability to grasp new communication technology, it can speed up their productivity. New technologies, such as instant messaging, can help employees communicate in a more efficient manner and get answers and help immediately. This allows them to solve problems and address issues in the workplace instantaneously.
It also has a positive impact on the relationships between employees and suppliers or customers by improving response times to questions, comments and concerns. Small businesses rely on technology to help them operate on a daily basis. From laptop computers with Internet capabilities to printers, online file storage and Web-based applications, technological advances impact small businesses across various industries. Technology has the potential to affect small business in positive and adverse ways, depending on the goals a business has a in place, the products they chose to use, and how well entrepreneurs and their employees adapt to new systems.
Small businesses organization work closely with their clients to provide them products and services that add value to their lifestyles. Going from an idea to a finished product or service requires small business owners and their employees to collaborate with each other and external vendors. E-mail and instant messenger tools paved the way for online sharing and collaboration. With the ability to instantly connect, share information and get feedback, e-mail and instant messenger are beneficial technological advantages for small businesses. Web-based project management programs offer a Web-based approach to keeping track of projects, delegating tasks, updating team members and clients, tracking time, and sharing documents in real-time. For small businesses, this means up-to-date information available in a central hub, regardless of a person's location.
Small business owners no longer have to mail surveys to customers and wait for weeks for replies, nor do they have to call customers for feedback. Technology gives small businesses the ability to connect with their customers via e-mail, through blogs, social networks and forums. Small business owners can take advantage of this instant connection by getting feedback from customers and applying it to their businesses immediately, if they see fit.
Freedom of Expression
 There is little or no restriction in acquiring electronic gadget that can allow almost everybody to express his or herself. People are free to express their mind on the social media platforms (Facebook, Twitter, Tango, Email, and WhatsApp among others). The combination of access to social media to express one’s mind and the Freedom of Information Act that was signed into law by former President Goodluck Jonathan in 2011 is a boost to individual and democratic government in this country. Freedom of Information legislation comprises laws that guarantee access to data held by the state.
They established a “right to know’’ legal process by which requests may be made for government-held information, to be received freely or at minimal cost barring standard exceptions. Also referred as open records governments are also typically bound by a duty to publish and promote openness. The brain behind FOIA is that if a democracy is to function optimally then her citizens must be fully informed as to how it operates. The sporadic spread of the law to access information reflects the prevailing beliefs that access to information is one essential pillar in a strategy to improve governance reduce corruption, strengthen democracy through enhanced participation and increase development (Darch and Underwood, 2010).
Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) is generally understood as a means to prevent the government from interfering with the distribution of information and opinions. The FOIA in Nigeria made it clear on how information records can be obtained such as right to access records, application for access to records due to refusal by Head of government to public institution to disclose records. In addition, FOI Act ensures having access to government data, information, record, files, documents in any form. In some jurisdiction, it may even mean opening up the meetings of governments, their advisory bodies and client groups to public security. It may also involve access by individuals to files containing information about themselves and an assurance that the information is not being used for improper or unauthorized purposes (Popoola, 2003). Therefore, with the advent of Computer Mediated Communication, internet peoples and information pertaining activities of government at every level begins to be exposed to the people. This leads to more understanding of government activities by the people, they become more enlightened and government of the people by the people thrives in our society daily.
Cashless Society Achieved
Technology in our society today has taken a different dimension and this brings about the term “cashless society”. The system of carrying about large sum of money to transact business within and outside the country has been eliminated with the advent of communication technology. It is easier today to make payment or withdraw money with the use of Automated Teller Machine (A T M) card. With the rise of mobile technologies, companies like Google, Visa and MasterCard are bracing for a rise in mobile payment technologies or mobile wallets. Juniper Research, a U.K. based research firm, predicts that payments using Near Field Communication (NFC) enabled technology will be at $180 billion by 2017. Smartphone manufacturers are ensuring newer phones that hit the market will have NFC capabilities so that consumers can happily swipe their phones to make a payment instead of using cash or credit cards.
Mobile wallet is a virtual wallet that stores payment card information on a mobile device. Mobile wallets provide a convenient way for a user to make in-store payments and can be used at merchants listed with the mobile wallet service provider. Businesses are transforming the way they operate to meet the ever-changing needs of their clients. Technology in the financial sector has not been left out of the digital transformation as an emergent group of companies known as Fintech keep coming up with disruptive tools and services that are easily accessible for low costs. One area of the financial industry that is rife with innovations is the payment sector. Using mobile technology, like smartphones, tablets or smart-watches, companies and users are adapting to emergent ways of conducting online and offline transactions using devices like a mobile wallet.
The mobile wallet is an app which can be installed or a feature that has been already in-built with the Smartphone. Once the app is installed and the user inputs his payment information, the wallet stores this information by linking a personal identification format like a number or key, or an image of the owner to each card that is stored. When a user makes a payment at a merchant, the mobile app uses a technology called Near-Field Communication (NFC) which uses radio frequencies to communicate between devices. NFC uses the personal identification format created for the user to communicate the payment information to the merchant’s POS (Point-of-Service) terminal. The information transfer is usually triggered when the user waves or holds his NFC-enabled mobile device over the store’s NFC reader.

Crime Prevention
The trend now is that it is very useful to employ CMC in preventing crime in our society. The most effective law enforcement agencies recognize and promote partnerships with their citizens to prevent crime. Citizens who are engaged and empowered to be responsible for their communities are valuable assets to the work of any security department. As the popularity of social media soars, these tools provide opportunities for law enforcement agencies to effectively and proactively reach out, communicate and connect with citizens and promote crime prevention in their communities.
Social networking is a platform of online sites that focus on building relationships among people who may share the same interest or activities. It provides a way for users to interact over the Internet. Users are often identified by their profiles, which can consist of photos and basic information, such as location, likes and dislikes, as well as friends and family. Well-known sites such as Facebook, MySpace, and Friendster, have taken social networking to a new level. In addition to the convenience of being able to access these websites from a computer, there are also applications on mobile devices that make it easy to access social applications anywhere and anytime.
The primary function of social media is, of course, is to socialize. For years, people have been sharing pictures of their kids and vacations, discussing dinner plans, and voicing their opinions. Social media has far exceeded its original design, serving a multitude of other roles in our society since its inception. From contests and advertisements to breaking news and raising awareness, these platforms are the most efficient and effective means of communication in the digital age.
Social networks are now being used to support criminal investigations and defenders of the law. It has grown to become one of the most influential communication channels in human history. Law enforcement agencies are certainly not exempted from the draw of social content. There are a number of ways that it plays a role in preventing crimes and solving crimes, ensuring safety of the citizenry, as well as enhancing the reputation of law enforcement outfit online. That is, Facebook, Twitter, Imo, Whatsapp, Google, LinkedIn, Pinterest, Instagram, YouTube, Skype, Snap Chat and a variety of other networks are working for the police. Law enforcement agencies join the world of social networking and increasingly takes advantage of data that the platforms provide their users (Hughes, 2014). In addition, officers are attending trainings to sharpen their social media techniques, and detailed policies and procedures are being developed nationwide. This changes will standardized the ways in which law enforcement officials utilize their own accounts as well as how they employ the platform for investigative purposes. Websites and social media pages provide excellent platforms for posting crime prevention tips. These tips can reinforce crime prevention activities taking place at any particular period of time.

The Bureau of Justice Assistance U.S. Department of Justice stated that social media can be employed to prevent crime in the following ways:
Supporting Neighbourhood Watch Groups
 The sustained involvement of the local law enforcement agency in watch group activities is critical. Social media can be used to link the work of a neighbourhood watch group to the department’s priorities and sustain the relationship. For example, neighbourhoods watch group meeting announcements can be posted or linked to a department’s Facebook page. A law enforcement agency can feature the “Neighbourhood Watch Group of the Month” and highlight the work and accomplishments of the community group. This type of recognition will foster support for crime prevention and goodwill in the community. Most importantly, social media can be used to effectively distribute information to many neighbourhood watch groups in a timely manner.
Promoting Crime Prevention Events
Department can use all of their social media tools such as Twitter, blogs, Facebook, and so on to organize and promote crime prevention activities and events. Example activities include Celebrate Safe Communities, National Night Out, local community fairs where department officers will be present and conduct activities, and free document shredding days.
Developing Crime Prevention Blog
A blog that focuses on crime prevention opens the opportunity for citizens to respond to and discuss information posted by a department. Because blogs can be interactive, they encourage dialogue with a department and provide important community feedback. A crime prevention blog can help connect law enforcement executives to their community and improve accessibility.

Hosting Crime Prevention Web Chat
Hosting a crime prevention web chat with the chief or the public information officer allows the department to interface with many citizens regarding ways that they can keep themselves and their communities safe. Because web chats are interactive, they allow citizens to post questions and responses to crime prevention information.
Creating Crime Prevention Podcast
A podcast is an audio presentation that can be posted to a website and downloaded for playing at the convenience of the listener. Though podcasts are not interactive, they are a way for a department to create a presentation that can be downloaded by anyone who is interested in learning more about crime prevention. Podcasts can be posted online along with crime prevention documents and other useful department information.
Early Detection of Diseases in Health Sector
In health sector today, communication technology aid early detection of cancer and every other ailment that may affect human beings. It is easy to predict and take pro-active measure to control the consequence of our health conditions. It also helps medical practitioners to detect sex of babies before they are born. This allows expectant parents to make decisions.
Members Participate More Equally
Research in the social and psychological impact of communication technology in the workplace shows that group dynamics changed; and members participated more equally and high status members cannot dominate the interaction to the same degree as in face-to-face meetings (Kiesler, Siegel, & McGuire, 1987 cited in Bob et al., 2014). This happened because CMC filters out certain personal, social and behavioural cues, such as voice and body language that people use in face-to-face communication.
Provision Flexible Work Environments
Technology gives small business owners and their employees the option to work in the office, from home, on the road and even from across the country. Affording small business owners the opportunity to hire talent from all over the world, technology can help businesses gain a competitive edge in the global environment. Now it is possible to work from home without ever stepping foot into the office, maintain meaningful relationships from around the world, and communicate with someone sitting across the room from you without saying a word. This is because of computer-mediated communication; the name given to any sort of communication that takes place with the assistance the use of computer mediated communication within the home has many benefits for a household and a family (Herring, 2004).
Herring argued that having access to personal computers, laptops and other technological devices can make an individual to carry out jobs he is expected to do at work.
Availability of Online Stores
Technology allows crafters, clothing and accessories designers and painters an option to set up online stores, rather than investing in costly storefronts. With consumers migrating to the Internet to find everything from gifts to ordering groceries, the popularity of online shopping increases with the variety of products and services. Businesses with storefronts can create online stores to expand their visibility and reach target markets beyond their neighborhoods and surrounding communities.


Employees Workload Reduced
Technology that helps automate processes will help reduce the workload for employees, freeing them up to work on other projects and assignments. New computer programs and software packages can help collect and analyze data that would normally go unused or would take employees a good deal of time to harness and process. New technology can also be used to help improve work processes and in turn increase productivity for both the employee and the business.
Accommodation of Disabled Workers
Disabled workers are perhaps the largest sector of the workforce that can benefit from technological advances. With new technology, doors are opened for disabled workers who previously may have lacked the ability to specialise in a job due to the inability of an employer to provide accommodations.
In addition, technology can help increase the productivity of disabled individuals who are already employed. Technology, such as touch-screen computers, can help employees more easily access and operate common office equipment.
Speed of Connections Improved
With the availability and use of Communication Technology, work environment could be properly organized. Everything from payroll to inventory is managed more efficiently with well-designed software in place. Documents, such as letters or government proposals for contract work, are easier to write and edit on the computer. Phone systems include technology for three-way or four-way calling, for example, to save time. Conference calls also save plane fare and hotel costs if group calls are productive.
Traveling Becomes Less Cumbersome
Virtually all modern technology, from cellphones to e-readers, saves time and energy. Instead of having to stay in the office, as workers did little more than a decade ago, business people can take calls on the go. Electronic readers help business travelers’ access newspapers, mobile messages and the Internet quite easily. This makes traveling less cumbersome, because paper materials can stay in the office. Emailing business associates from an electronic device means there is no need to return to the office after work if people are traveling around town or already headed home.
Accuracy in Management Planning
Communication technology improves the accuracy of planning in management. Communication technology can improve the accuracy of planning in management by providing managers with the data they need to make effective decisions. Technology solutions gather data from internal and external sources store them in a data warehouse and provide managers with access via a network. Collaboration tools enable managers in organizations to work together to plan operations and make joint decisions.
Communication networks enable managers throughout organization to access and share the same data. Technology’s contribution is to remove what was known as silos of information, previously only available to people within individual departments. Managers can also use such collaboration tools as video conferencing and Internet forums to share data and carry out joint planning exercises. It is easier for managers to access and plan their human resources. Consultancy firm such as Deloitte has developed a system that enables employees to post their profiles and work history. Managers and other employees can access the profiles over an intranet to identify people with the skills needed to provide expert advice or join a project team.
Gathers and Process Large Amount of Data
The most important impact of technology on management planning is the availability of vast amounts of data on sales, stock, and production. Business organizations can use information technology to gather external data from sales teams, branch offices, retail outlets, suppliers and logistics partners. With communication technology, it is easier than ever to obtain market data from independent analysts and market research companies, plus internal data on customer orders, inquiries and production adds.
Integration/Networks of Departments in Organizations
Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) software improves planning by integrating individual computer systems around organization. Tracking and planning the fulfilment of customer orders is easier because an ERP system replaces a series of standalone computer systems in different departments, such as sales administration, finance, warehousing and dispatch. Managers can now view the progress of an order through the various company systems and identify any bottlenecks or other problems as a basis for planning improvements.
Security of Data is Guaranteed
Storing the vast amount of data available can be a problem. However, cloud storage can be used to store and supplement your own facilities. Cloud storage is a pay-as-you-go solution that enables you to store data on massive servers at an independent service provider. Your IT team can access the data over a secure Internet connection and increase or decrease the amount of storage you use. This flexible approach to storage means that you can increase the amount of planning data you provide to managers, without having to invest in additional storage capacity.
Possibility of Real-Time and Off-Line
The communication technology process makes communication between two or more people in real time, such as classroom-based, face-to-face discussion, or a telephone conversation possible. It also allows participants that are not on-line at one and the same time, as in the case of correspondence by letter or fax possible. The interesting aspect of using the computer as a communication medium is that it is possible to use it at will both as a real-time communication medium like a telephone or an off-line communication medium like a letter-writing or fax system, depending on what is ideally required by the particular situation.
Improvement in Research and Discovery
Technology advances show people a more efficient way to do things, and these processes get results. For example, education has been greatly advanced by the technological advances of computers. Students are able to learn on a global scale without ever leaving their classrooms. Agricultural processes that once required dozens upon dozens of human workers can now be automated with advances in communication technology, which means cost-efficiency for farmers. Medical discoveries occur at a much more rapid rate, because the use of machines and communication technology helps to accelerate research process and allows for more intense educational research into medical matters.

Cost and Time Efficiency
There are many advantages to Information Communication Technology. The most obvious of which is that it saves time and resources. In the past, if two parties wanted to communicate, they would either have to mail letters back and forth or physically move people back and forth. Mail takes days to arrive, while the cost of flying someone across the country is pretty substantial. On the other hand, computer-mediated communications do this all for a much lower cost. In fact, computer-mediated communications allow work that used to require everyone in one office to be done across great distances. Cost efficiency is an advantage in some ways as communication technology improves on existing processes and showcases new ways to accomplish communication; electronic devices are able to produce the same if not more result than humans. This results in cost savings for individual, business owners, organizations and governments by allowing them to invest in growth in other areas of the business, which contributes on a positive level to the economy as a whole.
DISADVANTAGES OF COMPUTER-MEDIATED COMMUNICATION
However, in spite of the stated merits of Computer-Mediated Communication, there are negative effects of using it to communicate and transact businesses in human society. Some of those disadvantages are highlighted and explained bellow:
In today's world, where just about everything is more convenient and accessible due to advances in technology especially communication technology across almost all sectors, it may seem as though it is a misnomer to even mention any negative impact of technological advances. However, despite how far technology has taken humans and no matter how convenient it may make things, there are some negative impacts accompanying this level of access. Some of the negative impacts of communication technology are stated below:
Cultural Value is Reduced
Cultural values are values that culturally trained individuals are expected to uphold in an organized society and that define what has been called cultural integrity. They are values that directly bear on the manner in which work is performed and interaction takes place, and the attitudes and interaction that make a man. Cultural values include values such as honesty, objectivity, fairness, trust, respect, openness, association, and responsibility. A society that strongly relies on computer-mediated communication cannot serve as proper vehicles for the transmission of cultural values, and for the transmission of cultural values in general. A number of authors have argued that transmission of cultural values requires real-world settings in which people engage in face-to-face interaction. This, indeed, seems to be the feeling of many ideal families throughout the world.
Ohiagu (2010) in her study on “Indigenous Societies and Cultural Globalization in the 21st Century’’ and discovered that the Internet, Global System of Mobile Telecommunication (GSM), and Satellite Communication (cable TV networks) are perhaps the most influential of all Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in modern digital society. The outcome of the study is that the impact of ICTs on the Nigerian people has both positive and negative impacts. While these technologies have the potential of eroding local cultures even to the point of threatening their extinction, yet they equally provide a podium for global societies and cultures (Nigerian people and culture inclusive) to meet and interact. The resultant globalization of world cultures or global culture, of course, is not without inherent problems of hierarchy, domination by the stronger kingdoms and subservience of the weaker kingdoms, etc. After all, when Marshall McLuhan prophesied that the world was quickly turning into a global village, he did not suggest or insinuate the emergence of a village without village heads, elders, chiefs, titled men and influential few. So the emerging global village orchestrated by ICTs is not a village constituted of equals. The information and communication powerful nations have accordingly taken the positions of village heads, elders, Chiefs, titled men and influential few as the case may be. She added that although there are critical negative pressures exerted by ICTs on the Nigerian society, the effect of these technologies on the people's lifestyles is mainly positive oriented. This study submitted that the way forward is not in limiting the people's focus on these noxious dimensions of globalization but in concentrating on its potentials. The research design used was survey which allowed issues to be observed directly from human specimens. Consequently, the above conclusions were drawn from the findings extracted from real life experiences rather than on assumptions or theoretical ideas. The research findings revealed that the Information and Communication Technologies have a double edged impact on the Nigerian people and culture. On one hand, there is the detrimental effect of the local cultures being overshadowed by the more dominant or overriding cultures of the western society perhaps leading to the disappearance of some traditional values. On the other hand, these technologies have yielded a platform or stage upon which the Nigerian scripts are acted out or showcased globally as in a theatre room. The technologies, despite their harmful potentials, thus empower the Nigerian society to encounter and be encountered by other societies and cultures and thus be developed and enriched.


Communication Gap Increased
Communication technology gives rise to information gap between the rich and the less privilege. This is mostly visible in developing countries where there is disparity in access to communication gadgets. This can happen in an environment where it is expensive to acquire and maintain electronic devices to mediate communication. It has been argued that computer usage in general is accessible to wealthier, high-achieving people living in urban cities of the world. Today, few Nigerians have access to CMC technology. The situation in other developed countries, while in the developing world, computer technology often significantly increases the gap between the rich and the poor.
Platform for Propaganda, Racists and Hate Speech
Banks (2010) in his research  on “regulating hate speech online’’ stated that the most recent estimate, from the Simon Wiesenthal Center, suggests that there are currently around 8,000 hate sites in existence. Social networking sites such as Facebook and MySpace have also become breeding ground for racists and far-right extremist groups to spread their propaganda.
Accessed by more than 200 million users, such websites, which attract thousands of new members every day, have become a key conduit through which extremists can educate others, transmit ideas and beliefs, and mobilize for demonstrations and rallies. The Internet has become the ‘new frontier’ for spreading hate, as millions can be reached through an inexpensive and unencumbered social network that has enabled previously diverse and fragmented groups to connect, engendering a collective identity and sense of community. Perry and Olsson suggested that previously isolated and atomized members off ar-right groups have been replaced by a ‘global racist subculture’ that s hares values, ideologies and fears.
 Banks stated further that technological innovation has enabled extremists and hate mongers to propagate their rhetoric and strategies, recruit, organize and unify through websites, private message boards and email and other social media. The growth in online hate groups has been mirrored by the rise in web-based hate speech, harassment, bullying and discrimination, targeted directly and indirectly through forums, blogs and emails. This rise in hate speech online is compounded by difficulties in policing such activities which sees the Internet remain largely unregulated. Criminal justice agencies are unlikely to proactively dedicate time and money to investigate offences that are not a significant public priority. Consequently, the police will rarely respond to online hate speech unless a specific crime is reported. Yet despite such shortcomings, more and more nation states have sought to combat the publication of hate propaganda. The study argued that a broad coalition of government, business and citizenry is likely to be most effective in reducing the harm caused by hate speech.
Children and Minors’ Rights are violated
The Internet, mobile phones and other electronic media provide children and young people with levels of access to information, culture, communication and entertainment impossible to imagine just twenty years ago. With many of their extraordinary benefits, however, come hazards. The Internet and associated technologies have made abusive images of children easier to create and distribute, and provide significant new opportunities for abusers to access and make contact with children and young people online. While information and communication technology (ICT) has not created crimes involving sexual abuse and exploitation of children, it has enhanced the scale and potential of some old and familiar ones. Expanding Internet access for all children and young people without discrimination and exclusion in all parts of the world, together with promoting digital citizenship and responsibility, ought to be critical objectives for policymakers concerned with enhancing opportunities for children. For example, for children or teenagers who have been exposed to sexual contents, there may be increase in teenage pregnancy. Similarly, when people, both teenagers and adults are exposed to violence and all forms of immoralities, they may be tempted to emulate and embrace the behaviour and think that it is acceptable. It has reached the stage that if everyone copies the social behaviours portrayed on the internet on daily basis, our society would be devoid of morals and many peoples’ lives would lack focus and be destroyed.
Laziness Increased Among the Youth
Ohiagu (2010) discovered that almost  every  member  of  the  study  group  pointed  out  that  on  one  hand,  with  its  heavy  load  of information available to all and sundry, the Internet boosts research and education, yet on the other hand, students no longer read  books  or do proper research. All they do is to download other people’s works with the ease of inserting a flash drive.  The survey revealed that the Internet encourages laziness as people spend a lot of time on-line, chatting,  playing  games,  surfing pornographic  sites  and  indulging  in  Internet  fraud.  Eventually, the Internet enhances cyber fraud or cyber crime, promotes net promiscuity, invasion of privacy and other immoral behaviours. 
Job Elimination on the Increase
The technological advancements of recent decades have much in common with the effects of the Industrial Revolution in the latter part of the 18th century. Specifically, both movements accelerated the displacement of workers by machines that could perform tasks faster, more accurately. While technology enables business owners to reduce overhead by downsizing their workforce, individuals whose skill sets are now obsolete have limited options for employment if their current jobs are eliminated.
Therefore, human workers retain less value, which is a disadvantage of technological advances. Because machines automate processes can do the work of 10 people with one computer, companies and organisations discover they do not need to employ as many people to get the job done. As machines and computers become even more advanced and efficient, this will continue to be a growing disadvantage of technology and an issue that has a global impact.
It is likely that technology can help workers dodge true responsibilities. Every business owner knows voice mail and email can work against a company’s bottom line. An employee who wants to slack off for an hour or two in a private office might let voice mail take calls and ignore important emails. During this recession period, business calls that might have resulted in sales or important relationships are diffused or gone for good.
Man Depends Fully on Machines for Tasks
The more advanced society becomes technologically intensified, the more people begin to depend on computers and other forms of technology for everyday existence. This means that when a machine breaks or a computer crashes, humans become almost disabled until the problem is resolved. This kind of dependency on technology puts people at a distinct disadvantage, because they become less self-reliant. People depend on machine for simple calculation of addition and subtraction or multiplication. It has got to an extent that some people cannot even estimate how much they make per day in their businesses without the aid of machine.
Privacy Rights Violated
Surveillance equipment, key cards, and the increased monitoring of phone and Internet use in the workplace continue to raise issues of employee privacy. This generates the need for personnel policies that justify the omnipresent watchfulness of management, as well as methodologies to monitor and enforce those policies. While such measures endeavor to ensure that time and resources are used appropriately, employees may interpret these safeguards as distrust, or feel that everything they do is being watched.
Security Laxity on the Increase
The shift to paperless offices leaves companies vulnerable on two major fronts. The first is that if there is a power outage, electronic data cannot be retrieved unless backup files at an offsite location are accessible. Secondly, any type of electronic platform is subject to the threat of computer viruses and hacking. These can compromise vital records, databases and clients confidentiality.
Interpersonal Interaction Decreased
 Some researchers expressed concern that communicating through technology will build global networks while reducing proximate neighborhood and family ties, that communication technology may alter peoples' work and communication patterns significantly and may dehumanize interpersonal interaction (Eastmond, 1992; Zuboff, 1988 cited in Romiszowski et. al, 2001). Compared to face-to-face communication through communication technology engages fewer senses, transmitting fewer symbolic cues and does not transmit facial expressions and other body languages. It is seen as more private kind of communication. Users of the internet devices, particularly the youth have lower levels of family face-to-face communication and interaction in social circles. For example, spending more time on the internet displaces more meaningful relationship and higher quality communication. It decreases meaningful social interaction and integration.

Immediate Response Features Increase Human Impatience
Technology has further increased impatience to get results. Where employees or consumers once might have waited three weeks for a letter to answer their concerns, an email or text request that goes unanswered for 10 minutes now can create agitation. While email enables users to interact with clients on the other side of the globe, it has also diminished some of the trust and rapport that previously evolved from face-to-face meetings and phone conversations. Even within the same office, workers are often more inclined to chat electronically rather than physically walk to a cubicle or congregate at the water-cooler.
Difficult to Separate Relevant and Irrelevant Information
One point that should be considered is whether unlimited multi-way communication is in fact always desirable within an educational situation. Many participants in computer conferencing have expressed frustration and disappointment with the difficulty they have in sorting out relevant from irrelevant information, because there are so many participants contributing messages on a variety of different topics. There is the reality of information overload stemming from people who feel the need to forward anything they believe could be remotely interesting to everyone they know.
Dependency on Machine communication slows Down Work
With communication technology, it is possible to actually slow down work with it. For example, checking one’s email too often negatively affects productivity. It is better to stay focused in making 20 calls versus checking email every 15 minutes. Distractions, such as phone calls, are often best managed by voice mail. Employees, however, hurt relationships with clients and slow down business projects when voice messages pile up.
Automated System Frustrates Clients and Clients
Technology can frustrate clients who need to reach business organizations. For example, individuals calling a help desk/customer relation desk for answers to a question might not reach a live person. Pressing numbers to communicate your needs, such as “1 for yes” or “2 for no,” depersonalizes the relationship between customers and the companies they patronize. Having a live operator as an early option keeps callers much happier; otherwise, they may take their businesses elsewhere.
Increase in Online Fraud
Computer-Mediated communication has its negative impact in the sense that if the so-called Facebook friends expose one to pornographic videos or other forms of vices like ritual killing, kidnapping, gangsterism etc, this certainly will have a serious effect on people’s social lives.  In this case, individuals are less likely to know the position, background, and expertise of those with whom they communicate. This is a dangerous trend which has led to deception and death of some participants in recent time. For example, Cynthia Osokogu was a 24-year-old and only daughter of General Frank Osokogu (rtd), she was a boutique store owner and post-graduate student of Nasarawa State University, who was murdered about 5 years ago at a hotel in Festac town, Lagos state after being lured to Lagos for business purpose then drugged, strangled and robbed of her possession. It was reported that she was murdered by her Facebook acquaintances. Report said that Cynthia had chatted with the two undergraduates on Facebook for months. In the process, they reportedly got to know that she owned a boutique in Nasarawa State, following which they reportedly had a business proposal with her, promising to host her whenever she visited Lagos. On her arrival at the Murtala Muhammed Airport, Ikeja, on July 22, 2012, she was reportedly picked up by the two undergraduates and driven to a hotel in Festac Town. At the hotel, her drink was reportedly drugged before she was strangled to death.
Reduced Credibility of Message and Communicator
Depersonalization of participants through communication technology can lead to less credibility of the information and opinions that are gathered over the networks.
In this era of machine communication, the sender of message lack adequate knowledge, background and credentials of the person at the other end of the machine. In the case of some of the researches online, there is the possibility that on-line messages held little important information.
Loss of Control
Communication technology can lead to inability of participants to have control over topic of discussion. Maybe partly as a consequence of the loss of a sense of structure on the part of the participants, the participants would tend to pick up on a recently circulated message and respond to that out of context, often leading the discussion into a completely new area. It was found that the task of bringing discussants back to the original topic was much more difficult in the CMC environment than would normally be the case in face-to-face discussion.
It was shown that these two problems were largely caused by the software environment within which the conferences were taking place by modifying this environment and demonstrating that both the problems were greatly diminished. Specific modifications used were the development of a structured discussion environment within a hypertext software package that would automatically create separate discussion areas for each topic and automatically create links between relevant messages that could later be followed with ease (Romiszowski & Chang, 1992).
Reduction in Academic Values Increased
Academic values are values that academically trained individuals are expected to uphold in academic settings and in professional life, and that define what has been called academic integrity.
They are values that directly bear on the manner in which academic work is performed, the manner in which professional interaction takes place, and the attitudes that are taken to professional work and professional interaction. Academic values include values such as honesty, objectivity, fairness, trust, collegiality, respect, accuracy, thoroughness, independence, openness, curiosity and responsibility. A university training, then, is not just about learning knowledge and skills in a certain discipline, it is also about acquiring academic values so as to acquire an academic “mindset,” a set of attitudes and practices in which these values are brought to life.
A University that strongly relies on computer-mediated education cannot serve as proper vehicles for the transmission of academic values, and for the transmission of cultural values in general. A number of authors have argued that a profound learning experience, which includes the transmission of academic values, requires real-world settings in which people engage in face-to-face interaction. This, indeed, seems to be the feeling of many educators throughout the globe (Gladieux and Swail, 1999a cited in Brey, 2006).


Cyber Crime Increases
Advent of communication technology has led to increase in cyber/internet crime in our society today. This is common among the youth who utilize their knowledge of communication technology device to swindle their fellow beings across borders. Computer crimes are illegal activities performed using a computer and they include theft, financial fraud, embezzlement, online harassment, virus infection and sabotage. Computer crimes affect all businesses that rely on the Internet to operate.
Nigeria records about N127b loss annually to Cyber Crime, the Senator representing Oyo North Senatorial District, Dr. Abdulfatai Buhari disclosed this during an annual lecture entitled ‘Legislative Commitment and Cyber Crime’, at the Faculty of Law, Lead City University, Ibadan. Buhari said the figure would continue to grow unless the National Assembly acted fast and intensified its efforts in preventing the unwholesome act. He declared that the figure represented 0.8% of the country’s GDP. Quoting a report from the National Security Adviser (NSA) office, Buhari said “Nigeria has been ranked third in global internet crimes, coming after United States of America and United Kingdom respectively. “In the year 2015, the Information Security Society of Nigeria (ISSAN) revealed that 25% of the cybercrimes in Nigeria are unresolved and that 7.5% of the world’s hackers are Nigerians. “In 2014 alone, Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC) reported that customers in Nigeria lost about 6 billion naira to cyber criminals, while NDIC (2015) showed a 183% increase on the e-payment platform in Nigerian banks. “In a similar development, the CBN (2015) report showed that 70% of attempted or successful fraud/forgery cases in Nigeria banking system were perpetrated via the electronic channels (Daily Post, 2011).
A research report in 2000 by the FBI showed that out of all the business respondents, 85 percent had been victims of computer crime. These crimes compromise businesses and put them at a disadvantage; for example, the same FBI report shows that $265 million was lost to computer crime in 2000. Small businesses suffer more crimes because they cannot afford to implement security measures to stop the crimes, unlike the big companies. Small businesses are also reluctant to put in security measures because they believe that hackers will mainly target big companies.
Hacking is breaking into computer systems for unauthorized purposes, which may be either malicious or non-malicious. Hacking may involve, for example, snooping around on someone’s personal computer through remote access, intentionally modifying or destroying files to which one has not been granted access, releasing computer viruses, stealing passwords or files, exposing personal information, and stealing electronic money (Forester and Morrison, 1994 and Baase, 1997) stated that Students and staff members at both distance centre and conventional universities may engage in hacking for a variety of reasons. They may simply be unaware that they are breaking into a computer system, they may just be curious, they may be out to harm someone, they may want to benefit themselves, or they may have entirely different reasons. Malicious hacking is clearly morally (Daily post, 2011).
Cyber War Emerged with CMC
Communication technology may lead to cyber warfare. This has become a new form of warfare. Some military war strategists in North Korea asserted that cyber warfare replaces the traditional method of war. Whereas others contend that it simply complements the kinetic methods of warfare. Some go as far as to speculate that the “third world war will be the global cyber war.” They all designate cyberspace as the fifth major battlefield, following sky, land, sea, and space. They stress that cyberspace is its own medium with its own rules, and yet they struggle to define the uses and limits of power in cyberspace. They recognize cyber war capability as a core military combat power, but insist that the enemy does not have the right to retaliate for cyber attacks because of the technical complexity of determining the perpetrators of cyber operations. Despite  an  inferior  information  communication  environment, North Korea has a high capacity to conduct robust cyber operations aimed at collecting foreign intelligence, disrupting foreign computers, information and communication systems, networks and critical infrastructures, and stirring public discontent and disorder in the enemy states.
The Korean People’s Army concentrated its efforts on strengthening the cyber war capabilities through establishing a command and control structure dedicated to cyber warfare, forming military units specializing in cyber warfare, training expert manpower, and advancing research and development of core cyber technologies. North Korea critically depends on outside resources for the conduct of its offensive cyber effects operations (Mansourov, 2014). For example, it was reported in South Korea on March 20, 2013 that Computer networks running three major South Korean banks and the country’s two largest broadcasters were paralyzed in attacks that some experts suspected originated in North Korea, which has consistently threatened to cripple its far richer neighbour. The attacks, which left many South Koreans unable to withdraw money from ATMs and news broadcasting crews staring at blank computer screens, came as the North’s official Korean Central News Agency quoted the country’s leader, Kim Jong-un, as threatening to destroy government installations in the South, along with American bases in the Pacific.

Employees Illegally Use Company Equipment
An employee in possession of company equipment, including a cell phone or personal computer, may treat the equipment as his own personal property because of the mental ownership he develops through exclusive use. Ethical problems arise when an employee chooses to use these pieces of equipment for non-work-related reasons, including searching for a new job or accepting personal calls. An employer must develop a clear policy on using company equipment loaned to an employee for business purposes. This allows an employer to set the ethical standard regarding the use of technology.
Moral and Ethical Standard Violated
Discussions of moral and ethical behaviour in the information technology field have moved to the forefront of the business world due to the rise of electronic commerce (e-business). Internet technologies have made it much easier for even small companies to gather, assemble and circulate customer information. However, these new technologies have generated fears about the proper use of customer data and the protection of individual privacy, especially when it comes to buying and selling such sensitive data. Technology moves at a pace that can easily outrun ethical standards surrounding its use. The effects of technology on work ethics move at a similar pace with employers moving to establish ethical boundaries that seem to infringe on employee privacy rights and restrict communication abilities. These tactics have led to courtroom battles, quick job terminations and complaints filed with the National Labour Relations Board.
Workday Changed into a Near 24-Hour
Easily portable laptops and smartphones with word processing ability and email make working from any location a simple matter of finding a Wi-Fi connection. The shifting definition of the workplace also affects the ethics behind the standard eight-hour workday. Just because technology allows an employer to access her employees and request work at all times of the day, does not mean that it is the ethical thing to do. Changing the workday into a near 24-hour experience also blurs the ethical lines regarding employee compensation especially hourly employees who must receive pay for every minute spent working (Gladieux and Swail, 1999a cited in Brey, 2006).
Monitoring Social Networking Websites/ Monitoring Employee Communication
Technology in the digital age and the accessibility of the internet allow employees to access personal email accounts and talk to friends and family in a variety of ways. This has led to increased employer monitoring of employee communications during working hours in an effort to maintain employee focus on work tasks. An ethical dilemma arises from employers potentially viewing personal employee information and respecting privacy rights. While many courts across the country continually uphold employer monitoring rights, Privacy Rights Clearinghouse's website states at least one court (the Superior Court of New Jersey) has ruled employers may be violating employee privacy rights in viewing personal communications (Katz and Rice, 2002).
Katz et. al. (2002) stated that social networking websites can become technological battlegrounds between employees and management personnel. Monitoring employee social networking WebPages has become a popular tactic for management and business owners and has blurred the lines as to acceptable workplace conduct and what constitutes lawful termination. For example, Sulaiman Aledeh, Broadcaster and presenter with Channels television, was faced with stiff discipline immediately his employer discovered he owns a blog named  “Sulaialedeh Blog’’ in  late 2016 and this eventually led to his exit from the broadcast station early 2017.
CMC Contributes to Stress
In earlier generations, you could leave the office at 5 and not have to think about it again until the next morning, nor were you expected to take phone calls or respond to requests if you were sick or on vacation. The advent of communication technologies such as email, cell phones and pagers among others has increased the length of the average workday.
Average workday has summarily increased along with accessibility to internet by workers and clients. This blurs the line between work life and home life, and may contribute to your stress level.
Teachers’ Workload Increased
In education, a particular growth area is the use of computer-mediated communication systems, not only for distance education when the participants are separated physically but also for more convenient communication on the same campus. Applications include institutions that utilize CMC as a principal mode of instruction and communication between tutors and students for whole courses, programmes that run a few course units by means of ICT, and the use of communication technology as a support medium for enrichment in otherwise conventional courses. However, one of the challenges identified in the educational uses of computer conferencing is that of teacher workload. Experiences from the NKI Electronic College in Norway show that teachers' main reservation about educational CMC is the open-ended demand on their time (Paulsen, 1992 cited in Romiszowski et. al, 2001). They quoted (Hiltz, 1988) who stated that teaching an on-line course, at least the first time, was a bit like parenthood. That is teachers are to be on duty all the time, and there seems to be no end to the demands on their time and energy.
Interpretation Becomes More Difficult
 User statement interpretation may be difficult due to the absence of verbal, body language or face-to-face communication through communication technology. It is certain that lack of precise interpretation of messages may lead to confusion during interactions through communication technology.
Computers and Distance Learning Affect Equality in Education
Positively, distance education has been argued to be an equalizer by making academic education more accessible. Most importantly, it has been claimed that distance education may shatter geographical barriers to educational access and provide educational opportunities to people who may otherwise have not been in a position to enter the higher education system. People trapped by geographic isolation, economically disadvantaged people, people with health problems or handicaps, people who suffer discrimination, and people with jobs who are unable to relocate to a city with a university (Daniel, 1996 and Jones, 1997). More generally, computer networks have been argued to stimulate equal treatment and equal opportunity within schools because computerized interactions have been claimed to be less threatening and discrimination to be less likely because differences are less visible online (it is likely that racial and sexual inequalities may persist in distance education groups. In Europe, some scholars have argued that strong teacher awareness of such inequalities remains a necessity. Negatively, it has been argued, distance education, and more generally the extensive reliance on computers in teaching, creates new hurdles for certain groups that may induce new inequalities. This has been the main conclusion of what is currently the most quoted study on equality in distance education, The Virtual University and Educational Opportunity (Gladieux and Swail, 1999a cited in Brey, 2006), a study published by the College Board of the United States. Based on empirical data, the authors argued that distance education does not seem to help people low on the socio-economic scale who have traditionally been underrepresented in higher education (minorities and the economically less advantaged), and in fact seems to create new obstacles for them. Therefore, distance education may work to deepen the divide between educational haves and have-nots.
The authors identify two kinds of obstacles for socio-economically disadvantaged groups in distance education. First, members of these groups often do not have access to computers and online services at home. And if they do have access at home, or if they make use of computers at a local service point, the quality of the hardware and software is often lacking, resulting in technological problems like equipment malfunctioning.
Summary
One important advantage of CMC in this era of digital age is that CMC provides a means to move ideas to people instead of moving people to ideas. While CMC has contributed a lot to development of human beings by making life easier to live, it also resulted in  some  negative  effects such as depersonalization, impoliteness, information overload and increase worker stress due to having to provide immediate feedback. Ohiagu (2010) findings showed  that  on  one  hand,  with  its  heavy  load  of information availed to all and sundry, the Internet boosts research and education, yet on the other hand, students no longer read  books  or do proper research. All they do is to download other people’s works with the ease of inserting a flash drive.  The survey revealed that the Internet encourages laziness as people spend a lot of time on-line, chatting,  playing  games,  surfing pornographic  sites  and  indulging  in  Internet  fraud.  Eventually, the Internet enhances cyber fraud or cyber crime, promotes net promiscuity, invasion of privacy and other immoral behaviours. 
Excessive exposure to other cultures through the Net is said to lead to gradual depletion of Nigerian values. The Internet extremely exposes the people to western lifestyles, makes them prefer them to local lifestyles, and reflects local cultures in the negative. 
Copying of foreign negative practices such as violence and indecent dressing has become part of the Nigerian existence. Thus the Internet gingers cultural imperialism. Besides, such unrestricted exposures adulterates some good moral values upheld in the local culture, leads to neglect of the mother tongue or vernacular languages and popularize western languages.  She also found out that just like the Internet, cable channels encourage the erosion of our cultural values by promoting appreciation and preference for what is foreign while whatever is typically Nigerian is seen as inferior and primitive. Nigerians imitate negative TV/screen lifestyles such as drug taking. The showing of x-rated films equally exposes the youth to an unrealistic and illusionary life. Cable stations are projected as capable of transmitting nudity, hedonism, promiscuity, materialism, violence, indecency in language and dressing. 
Almost every business relies on technology for day-to-day operations, from the decision of a solo entrepreneur to purchase a new laptop to a growing company's roll out of time-management software. Beyond the standard office laptop and smart phone, organizations implement information systems, custom software or specialized technology equipment to keep operations running smoothly. Advancements in communication technology have the potential to decrease the time needed to complete a task, or in some cases eliminate the need for a business process or job function. Typically, the desire for increased productivity drives upgrades to technology within an organization, which can significantly influence company operations.
Progressions in computers and technology improve the efficiency of a business. Organizational structure adapts to these changes by restructuring departments, modifying position requirements or adding and removing jobs. Employers often require training on new software programs or equipment as a job requirement if it becomes industry standard. Web-based businesses may add new departments or jobs to specialize in new areas of technology.
On some occasions, implementing new forms of technology may render certain job duties obsolete in some industries. For employees, technological enhancements often reduce the number of tedious office tasks or improve efficiency. Changes in day-to-day operation may come in the form of an upgrade to desktop computers, faster office equipment or the introduction of a new information system. Business owners increasingly utilize comprehensive software platforms to streamline operations. For example, customer relationship management (CRM) systems provide a cloud-based computing system for project management, assigning tasks and maintaining an accurate log of client communications.
The decision to purchase or upgrade technology has the potential to put a big dent in company finances for large and small operations. To determine the time frame and scale of adding new computers or software, business owners must weigh the cost of improvements against the perceived added value to the company. Concerns about costs can often lead small businesses to delay upgrades and purchases. However, technology that significantly improves operations can offset costs through with an increase in profit.
The outcomes of the study were that workers’ productivity and efficiency generally increase, and workers’ usage of new technology varied based on age, gender and educational level with the use of computer mediated communication. Introduction of communication technology increased its use as a whole; it impacted negatively on interpersonal relationships. The advantages of CMC, which is a type of asynchronous communication media, over face-to-face communication or synchronous communication media include more active and equal team member participation, flexibility over time and distance combined with ease of changing team size quickly, the ability of team members to reflect or collect data before responding, and instant and evolving archived records of the discussion known as threading. On the other hand, the technical nature of communication technology leads to negative outcomes such as depersonalization, impoliteness, information overload and increase worker stress due to having to respond quickly.
Conclusion and Recommendations
All over the world, communication technology is changing the face of business, teaching, learning, engineering, research and virtually all sectors of our economy. Nigerian educational system cannot afford to take the back seat. To prepare this new generation for development, there is the need to develop skills, knowledge, attitude, and perspectives to teach every subject in the light of globalization from primary to tertiary level. One important function of this era was that communication technology provided a means to move ideas to people instead of moving people to ideas. While communication technology has contributed a lot to development of human beings by making life easier to live, it also resulted in  some  negative  effects such as depersonalization, impoliteness, information overload and increase worker stress due to having to provide immediate feedback.
The ability to keep up and use communication technology to your advantage requires the ability to identify possible uses for each technological advance. Some technological advances may prove cost-prohibitive for some small businesses. In addition, business owners must evaluate the potential benefits of each new technology. This evaluation should shine some light on the possible benefits it will provide to both employees and the company.
Communication technology is an important aspect of civilization which developing or developed nations cannot disregard. In fact, the globalization of the whole world at large is centered on the internet. It is a global system of interconnected computer networks that uses the standard internet protocol suite to serve billions of users. It is therefore apparent that the internet has the potential to harm or enhance individual’s social skills and social life. The study has shown that communication technologies increase the quantity and enhance the quality, speed and availability of information in the global system; both boost education, information and social development.  They bring people together and improve level of interaction between different cultures or exposure to other cultures. For some people, they have become their primary sources of knowledge or information on other cultures. They have the potentials to popularize social values.
These media of communication have a double-edged effect since they are capable of impoverishing as well as enriching cultural values of indigenous societies. Given this potential, the onus is on the Nigerian society to cue in to the globalization trend in order to utilize maximally the enriching capabilities of ICTs. Globalization will certainly remain an unavoidable or necessary part of the new global system and global communication through ICTs will continue to be the nature of the global system. Therefore, the Nigerian society has no choice but to incorporate itself to the global community and become active contributor and producer-society in order to harness the opportunities offered to it by ICTs.
For the media industry, the mission is to contribute quality programmes into the global system and share our cultural values with the rest of the world.  For the government, it is important to improve communication infrastructure to help Nigerians participate in the global community.
It is foolhardy to believe that Nigeria will become a communication-producer-society in the global system with an epileptic power supply and neglect to the state of information technologies in the country. It  is  equally  inevitable  for  people  to  interact  without  an  exchange  or  transfer  of  values,  ideas, viewpoints, and beliefs. Therefore, tolerance of cultural pluralism which is a feature of the global system is tendered here as the way forward. Rather than worrying over whose culture dominates the system, the concern of developing countries like Nigeria perhaps ought to be on how to exploit the opportunities of ICTs to make its cultural statement in the global system. Indigenous cultural values could be fine-tuned or polished when global interaction is enhanced. Cultural development, reinforcement and preservation thus become a healthier and more acceptable fallout of ICTs engineered globalization rather than the over emphasized cultural domination and imperialism (Ohiagu, 2010).              
               






References
Banks, J. (2010). Regulating Hate Speech Online. International Review of Law, Computers & Technology, (24) 3, 233–239.
Beebe, M. (2004). Impact of ICT Revolution on the African Academic Landscape. CODESRIA Conference on Electronic Publishing and Dissemination. Dakar, Senegal. Retrieved from http://www.codesria.org/Links/conferences/el_publ/beebe.pdf.
Bob, K. and Sooknanan, P. (2014). The Impact of Computer Mediated Communication (CMC) on Productivity and Efficiency in Organizations: A Case Study of an Electrical Company.
Bryant, J. and Thompson, S. (2002). Fundamental of media effects. McGrawhill: New York.
Bureau of Justice Assistance U.S. Department of Justice (December 2012). Social Media and Crime Prevention Fact Sheet by International Association of Chiefs of Police. Retrieved from www.iacpsocialmedia.org.
Ganiyu, M. and Akinreti, Q. (2011). Secret of Online and Multi-Media Journalism. Lagos: Emgee Publishing Limited.
Hughes, B. (2014). Agent Facebook and Detective Twitter: and Solving Crime Through Social Media. Retrieved from http://www.socialmediatoday.com/content/agent-facebook-and-detective-twitter-preventing-and-solving-crimes-through-social-media
Jega, A. (2007a). The Impact of Poor Funding on Nigerian Universities. A Paper Presented at the 22nd
AVCNU Conference, Usman Dan Fodiyo University, Sokoto.
Jega, A. (2007b). The Public University and National Development in a Globalised World: Role,
Relevance and Prospects. The 45th Anniversary Lecture, organised by Obafemi Awolowo University (O.A.U), Ile-Ife.
Katz, J. and Rice, R. (2002). Social Consequences of Internet Use: Access, Involvement and Interaction. Cambridge: The Mit Press.
Lim, C. (2002). A Theoretical Framework for the Study of ICT in Schools: A Proposal. British Journal of Educational Technology, 33(4).
McLuhan, M. (1967).The Medium is the Massage: An Inventory of Effects. London: Penguin.
Murgor, T. (2015). Challenges Facing Adoption of Information Communication Technology in African Universities. Journal of Education and Practice, (6)25.
Odumuh, T. O. (2012). English Language Teaching in a Globalized and digital Age: Implication for Teachers Preparation and Professional Development. A Journal of Teachers of English & Communication Skills, 9: 1-7.
Ogbulogo, C. (2004). Business Communication in Practice. Lagos: Sam Iroanusi Communications.
Ohiagu, P. O. (2010). Indigenous Societies and Cultural Globalization in the 21st Century. Nigeria:   University of Port Harcourt Press.
Olayiwola, O. A. (2013). Media and Security in Nigeria. European Journal of Business and Social Sciences, 2(9), pp 1-19.
                Popoola, S. (2008). Political Communication as a Mechanism of Conflict Management in a Democratic Dispensation Lagos: Department of Mass Communication. In R. A. Akinfeleye (Ed). Mass Media and Society: A Multi-Perspective Approach. Department of Mass Communication, University of Lagos, Akoka.
Prensky, M. (2001). Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants. On the Horizon, 9(5). Retrieved from http://www.marcprensky.com/writing/Prensky%20%20Digital%20Natives,%20Digital%20Immigrants%20-%20Part1.pdf.  
Resta, P. (2002). Information and Communication Technologies in Teacher Education, a Planning
Guide. Paris: UNESCO.
Romiszowski, A. J. and Mason, R.  (2001). Computer-Mediated Communication. Retrieved from http://www.aect.org/edtech/ed1/14/index.html.
Tobechukwu, U. E. (2007). The Nigerian Press Coverage of Political Conflicts in a Pluralistic Society. A thesis submitted to the Dept of Mass Communication, Covenant University, Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria.
UNESCO (2007-08). ICT Policies of Asia-Pacific Online.
United Nations Economic Commission for Africa. (2003). The Value of Library Services in Development. Addis Ababa: Economic Commission for Africa.

Issues in Computer-Mediated Communication         Issues in Computer-Mediated Communication Reviewed by IFEDAYO AKINWALERE on 2:23:00 pm Rating: 5

Fashion